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By M Laxmikant 6th Edition

(2019) With Samnya Gyan 2020

 By Manohar Pandey


M Laxmikant



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 By M Laxmikant 6th Edition(2019)

M Laxmikanth PDF

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Indian Polity by M Laxmikant 6th Edition Contents

  • Preface to the Sixth Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Acknowledgements
  • Year-Wise Break-up of the UPSC Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies—Prelims)
  • Year-Wise Break-up of the UPSC Marks on Indian Polity (General Studies—Mains)
  • About the Civil Services Examination
  • List of Tables

PART-I Constitutional Framework

1. Historical Background

  1. The Company Rule (1773–1858)
  2. The Crown Rule (1858–1947)
  3. Notes and References

2. Making of the Constitution

  1. Demand for a Constituent Assembly
  2. Composition of the Constituent Assembly
  3. Working of the Constituent Assembly
  4. Committees of the Constituent Assembly
  5. Enactment of the Constitution
  6. Enforcement of the Constitution
  7. Experts Committee of the Congress
  8. Criticism of the Constituent Assembly
  9. Important Facts
  10. Hindi Text of the Constitution
  11. Notes and References

3. Salient Features of the Constitution

  1. Salient Features of the Constitution
  2. Criticism of the Constitution
  3. Notes and References

4. Preamble of the Constitution

  1. Text of the Preamble
  2. Ingredients of the Preamble
  3. Key Words in the Preamble
  4. Significance of the Preamble
  5. Preamble as Part of the Constitution
  6. Amendability of the Preamble
  7. Notes and References

5. Union and its Territory

  1. Union of States
  2. Parliament’s Power to Reorganise the States
  3. Exchange of Territories with Bangladesh
  4. Evolution of States and Union Territories
  5. Notes and References

6. Citizenship

  1. Meaning and Significance
  2. Constitutional Provisions
  3. Citizenship Act, 1955
  4. Single Citizenship
  5. Overseas Citizenship of India
  6. Notes and References

7. Fundamental Rights

  1. Features of Fundamental Rights
  2. Definition of State
  3. Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights
  4. Right to Equality
  5. Right to Freedom
  6. Right Against Exploitation
  7. Right to Freedom of Religion
  8. Cultural and Educational Rights
  9. Right to Constitutional Remedies
  10. Writs—Types and Scope
  11. Armed Forces and Fundamental Rights
  12. Martial Law and Fundamental Rights
  13. Effecting Certain Fundamental Rights
  14. Present Position of Right to Property
  15. Exceptions to Fundamental Rights
  16. Criticism of Fundamental Rights
  17. Significance of Fundamental Rights
  18. Rights Outside Part III
  19. Notes and References

8. Directive Principles of State Policy

  1. Features of the Directive Principles
  2. Classification of the Directive Principles
  3. New Directive Principles
  4. Sanction Behind Directive Principles
  5. Criticism of the Directive Principles
  6. Utility of Directive Principles
  7. Conflict Between Fundamental Rights and Directive
  8. Principles
  9. Implementation of Directive Principles
  10. Directives Outside Part IV
  11. Notes and References

9. Fundamental Duties

  1. Swaran Singh Committee Recommendations
  2. List of Fundamental Duties
  3. Features of the Fundamental Duties
  4. Criticism of Fundamental Duties
  5. Significance of Fundamental Duties
  6. Verma Committee Observations
  7. Notes and References

10. Amendment of the Constitution

  1. Procedure for Amendment
  2. Types of Amendments
  3. Criticism of the Amendment Procedure
  4. Notes and References
  5. 11 Basic Structure of the Constitution
  6. Emergence of the Basic Structure
  7. Elements of the Basic Structure
  8. Notes and References

PART-II System of Government

12. Parliamentary System

  1. Features of Parliamentary Government
  2. Features of Presidential Government
  3. Merits of the Parliamentary System
  4. Demerits of the Parliamentary System
  5. Reasons for Adopting Parliamentary System
  6. Distinction between Indian and British Models
  7. Notes and References

13. Federal System

  1. Federal Features of the Constitution
  2. Unitary Features of the Constitution
  3. Critical Evaluation of the Federal System
  4. Notes and References

14. Centre–State Relations

  1. Legislative Relations
  2. Administrative Relations
  3. Financial Relations
  4. Trends in Centre–State Relations
  5. Notes and References

15. Inter-State Relations

  1. Inter-State Water Disputes
  2. Inter-State Councils
  3. Public Acts, Records and Judicial Proceedings
  4. Inter-State Trade and Commerce
  5. Zonal Councils
  6. Notes and References

16. Emergency Provisions

  1. National Emergency
  2. President’s Rule
  3. Financial Emergency
  4. Criticism of the Emergency Provisions
  5. Notes and References

PART-III Central Government

17. President

  1. Election of the President
  2. Qualifications, Oath and Conditions
  3. Term, Impeachment and Vacancy
  4. Powers and Functions of the President
  5. Veto Power of the President
  6. Ordinance-Making Power of the President
  7. Pardoning Power of the President
  8. Constitutional Position of the President
  9. Notes and References

18. Vice-President

  1. Election
  2. Qualifications, Oath and Conditions
  3. Term and Vacancy
  4. Powers and Functions
  5. Indian and American Vice-Presidents Compared
  6. Notes and References

19. Prime Minister

  1. Appointment of the Prime Minister
  2. Oath, Term and Salary
  3. Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister
  4. Role Descriptions
  5. Relationship with the President
  6. Chief Ministers who became Prime Ministers
  7. Notes and References

20. Central Council of Ministers

  1. Constitutional Provisions
  2. Nature of Advice by Ministers
  3. Appointment of Ministers
  4. Oath and Salary of Ministers
  5. Responsibility of Ministers
  6. Composition of the Council of Ministers
  7. Council of Ministers vs Cabinet
  8. Role of Cabinet
  9. Role Descriptions
  10. Kitchen Cabinet
  11. Notes and References

21. Cabinet Committees

  1. Features of Cabinet Committees
  2. List of Cabinet Committees
  3. Functions of Cabinet Committees
  4. Groups of Ministers
  5. Notes and References

22. Parliament

  1. Organisation of Parliament
  2. Composition of the Two Houses
  3. System of Elections to Lok Sabha
  4. Duration of Two Houses
  5. Membership of Parliament
  6. Presiding Officers of Parliament
  7. Leaders in Parliament
  8. Sessions of Parliament
  9. Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings
  10. Legislative Procedure in Parliament
  11. Joint Sitting of Two Houses
  12. Budget in Parliament
  13. Multifunctional Role of Parliament
  14. Ineffectiveness of Parliamentary Control
  15. Position of Rajya Sabha
  16. Parliamentary Privileges
  17. Sovereignty of Parliament
  18. Notes and References

23. Parliamentary Committees

  1. Meaning
  2. Classification
  3. Financial Committees
  4. Departmental Standing Committees
  5. Committees to Inquire
  6. Committees to Scrutinise and Control
  7. Committees Relating to the Day-to-Day Business of the House
  8. House-Keeping Committees
  9. Consultative Committees
  10. Notes and References

24. Parliamentary Forums

  1. Establishment of the Forums
  2. Objectives of the Forums
  3. Composition of the Forums
  4. Functions of the Forums
  5. Notes and References

25. Parliamentary Group

  1. Rationale of the Group
  2. Composition of the Group
  3. Objectives of the Group
  4. Functions of the Group
  5. The Group and IPU
  6. The Group and CPA
  7. Notes and References

26. Supreme Court

  1. Composition and Appointment
  2. Qualifications, Oath and Salaries
  3. Tenure and Removal
  4. Acting, Adhoc and Retired Judges
  5. Seat and Procedure
  6. Independence of Supreme Court
  7. Jurisdiction and Powers of Supreme Court
  8. Supreme Court Advocates
  9. Notes and References

27. Judicial Review

  1. Meaning of Judicial Review
  2. Importance of Judicial Review
  3. Constitutional Provisions for Judicial Review
  4. Scope of Judicial Review
  5. Judicial Review of the Ninth Schedule
  6. Notes and References

28. Judicial Activism

  1. Meaning of Judicial Activism
  2. Judicial Review and Judicial Activism
  3. Justification of Judicial Activism
  4. Activators of Judicial Activism
  5. Apprehensions of Judicial Activism
  6. Judicial Activism vs. Judicial Restraint
  7. Notes and References

29. Public Interest Litigation

  1. Meaning of PIL
  2. Features of PIL
  3. Scope of PIL
  4. Principles of PIL
  5. Guidelines for Admitting PIL
  6. Notes and References

PART-IV State Government

30. Governor

  1. Appointment of Governor
  2. Conditions of Governor’s Office
  3. Term of Governor’s Office
  4. Powers and Functions of Governor
  5. Constitutional Position of Governor
  6. Notes and References

31. Chief Minister

  1. Appointment of Chief Minister
  2. Oath, Term and Salary
  3. Powers and Functions of Chief Minister
  4. Relationship with the Governor
  5. Notes and References

32. State Council of Ministers

  1. Constitutional Provisions
  2. Nature of Advice by Ministers
  3. Appointment of Ministers
  4. Oath and Salary of Ministers
  5. Responsibility of Ministers
  6. Composition of the Council of Ministers
  7. Cabinet
  8. Notes and References

33. State Legislature

  1. Organisation of State Legislature
  2. Composition of Two Houses
  3. Duration of Two Houses
  4. Membership of State Legislature
  5. Presiding Officers of State Legislature
  6. Sessions of State Legislature
  7. Legislative Procedure in State Legislature
  8. Position of Legislative Council
  9. Privileges of State Legislature
  10. Notes and References

34. High Court

  1. Composition and Appointment
  2. Qualifications, Oath and Salaries
  3. Tenure, Removal and Transfer
  4. Acting, Additional and Retired Judges
  5. Independence of High Court
  6. Jurisdiction and Powers of High Court
  7. Notes and References

35. Tribunals

  1. Administrative Tribunals
  2. Tribunals for Other Matters
  3. Notes and References

36. Subordinate Courts

  1. Constitutional Provisions
  2. Structure and Jurisdiction
  3. National Legal Services Authority
  4. Lok Adalats
  5. Permanent Lok Adalats
  6. Family Courts
  7. Gram Nyayalayas
  8. Notes and References

37. Special Provisions for Some States

  1. Provisions for Maharashtra and Gujarat
  2. Provisions for Nagaland
  3. Provisions for Assam and Manipur
  4. Provisions for Andhra Pradesh or Telangana
  5. Provisions for Sikkim
  6. Provisions for Mizoram
  7. Provisions for Arunachal Pradesh and Goa
  8. Provisions for Karnataka
  9. Notes and References

PART-V Local Government

38. Panchayati Raj

  1. Evolution of Panchayati Raj
  2. 73rd Amendment Act of 1992
  3. Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions
  4. PESA Act of 1996 (Extension Act)
  5. Finances of Panchayati Raj
  6. Reasons for Ineffective Performance
  7. Notes and References

39. Municipalities

  1. Evolution of Urban Bodies
  2. 74th Amendment Act of 1992
  3. Types of Urban Governments
  4. Municipal Personnel
  5. Municipal Revenue
  6. Central Council of Local Government
  7. Notes and References

PART-VI Union Territories and Special Areas

40. Union Territories

  1. Creation of Union Territories
  2. Administration of Union Territories
  3. Special Provisions for Delhi
  4. Advisory Committees of Union Territories
  5. Notes and References

41. Scheduled and Tribal Areas

  1. Administration of Scheduled Areas
  2. Administration of Tribal Areas
  3. Notes and References

PART-VII Constitutional Bodies

42. Election Commission

  1. Composition
  2. Independence
  3. Powers and Functions
  4. Vision, Mission and Principles
  5. Notes and References

43. Union Public Service Commission

  1. Composition
  2. Removal
  3. Independence
  4. Functions
  5. Limitations
  6. Role
  7. Notes and References

44. State Public Service Commission

  1. Composition
  2. Removal
  3. Independence
  4. Functions
  5. Limitations
  6. Role
  7. Joint State Public Service Commission
  8. Notes and References

45. Finance Commission

  1. Composition
  2. Functions
  3. Advisory Role
  4. Notes and References

46. Goods and Services Tax Council

  1. Establishment of the Council
  2. Vision and Mission of the Council
  3. Composition of the Council
  4. Working of the Council
  5. Functions of the Council
  6. Other Functions of the Council
  7. Notes and References

47. National Commission for SCs

  1. Evolution of the Commission
  2. Functions of the Commission
  3. Report of the Commission
  4. Powers of the Commission
  5. Notes and References

48. National Commission for STs

  1. Separate Commission for STs
  2. Functions of the Commission
  3. Other Functions of the Commission
  4. Report of the Commission
  5. Powers of the Commission
  6. Notes and References

49. National Commission for BCs

  1. Establishment of the Commission
  2. Functions of the Commission
  3. Report of the Commission
  4. Powers of the Commission
  5. Notes and References

50. Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities

  1. Constitutional Provisions
  2. Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities
  3. Role of the Commissioner
  4. Vision and Mission
  5. Functions and Objectives
  6. Notes and References

51. Comptroller and Auditor General of India

  1. Appointment and Term
  2. Independence
  3. Duties and Powers
  4. Role
  5. Cag and Corporations
  6. Appleby’s Criticism
  7. Notes and References

52. Attorney General of India

  1. Appointment and Term
  2. Duties and Functions
  3. Rights and Limitations
  4. Solicitor General of India
  5. Notes and References

53. Advocate General of the State

  1. Appointment and Term
  2. Duties and Functions
  3. Notes and References

PART-VIII Non-Constitutional Bodies

54. NITI Aayog

  1. Establishment
  2. Rationale
  3. Composition
  4. Specialised Wings
  5. Objectives
  6. Functions
  7. Guiding Principles
  8. Cooperative Federalism
  9. Criticism
  10. Attached Offices
  11. Erstwhile Planning Commission
  12. National Development Council
  13. Notes and References

55. National Human Rights Commission

  1. Establishment of the Commission
  2. Composition of the Commission
  3. Functions of the Commission
  4. Working of the Commission
  5. Role of the Commission
  6. Performance of the Commission
  7. Notes and References

56. State Human Rights Commission

  1. Composition of the Commission
  2. Functions of the Commission
  3. Working of the Commission
  4. Human Rights Courts
  5. 2019 Amendment Act
  6. Notes and References

57. Central Information Commission

  1. Composition
  2. Tenure and Service Conditions
  3. Powers and Functions
  4. Notes and References

58. State Information Commission

  1. Composition
  2. Tenure and Service Conditions
  3. Powers and Functions
  4. RTI Amendment Act, 2019
  5. Notes and References

59. Central Vigilance Commission

  1. Establishment
  2. Composition
  3. Organisation
  4. Functions
  5. Jurisdiction
  6. Working
  7. Vigilance Units in the Ministries
  8. Whistle Blowers Protection Act (2014)
  9. Notes and References

60. Central Bureau of Investigation

  1. Establishment of CBI
  2. Motto, Mission and Vision of CBI
  3. Organisation of CBI
  4. Composition of CBI
  5. Functions of CBI
  6. Provision of Prior Permission
  7. CBI vs. State Police
  8. CBI Academy
  9. Notes and References

61. Lokpal and Lokayuktas

  1. Global Scenario
  2. Position in India
  3. Lokpal
  4. Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act (2013)
  5. Lokayuktas
  6. Notes and References

62. National Investigation Agency

  1. Establishment of the NIA
  2. Rationale of the NIA
  3. Functions of the NIA
  4. Vision of the NIA
  5. Mission of the NIA
  6. Jurisdiction of the NIA
  7. NIA (Amendment) Act, 2019
  8. Notes and References

63. National Disaster Management Authority

  1. Establishment of the NDMA
  2. Objectives of the NDMA
  3. Functions of the NDMA
  4. Additional Functions of the NDMA
  5. State Disaster Management Authority
  6. District Disaster Management Authority
  7. Notes and References

PART-IX Other Constitutional Dimensions

64. Co-operative Societies

  1. Constitutional Provisions
  2. Reasons for the 97th Amendment
  3. Notes and References

65. Official Language

  1. Language of the Union
  2. Regional Languages
  3. Language of the Judiciary and Texts of Laws
  4. Special Directives
  5. Committee of Parliament on Official Language
  6. Classical Language Status
  7. Notes and References

66. Public Services

  1. Classification of Services
  2. Constitutional Provisions
  3. Notes and References

67. Rights and Liabilities of the Government

  1. Property of the Union and the States
  2. Suits by or Against the Government
  3. Suits Against Public Officials
  4. Notes and References

68. Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes

  1. Rationale of Special Provisions
  2. Specification of Classes
  3. Components of Special Provisions
  4. Notes and References

PART-X Political Dynamics

69. Political Parties

  1. Meaning and Types
  2. Party System in India
  3. Recognition of National and State Parties
  4. Notes and References

70. Role of Regional Parties

  1. Features of Regional Parties
  2. Classification of Regional Parties
  3. Rise of Regional Parties
  4. Role of Regional Parties
  5. Dysfunctions of Regional Parties
  6. Notes and References

71. Elections

  1. Electoral System
  2. Election Machinery
  3. Election Process
  4. Notes and References

72. Election Laws

  1. Representation of the People Act, 1950
  2. Representation of the People Act, 1951
  3. Delimitation Act, 2002
  4. Other Acts Relating to Elections
  5. Rules Relating to Elections
  6. Orders Relating to Elections
  7. Notes and References

73. Electoral Reforms

  1. Committees Related to Electoral Reforms
  2. Electoral Reforms Before 1996
  3. Electoral Reforms of 1996
  4. Electoral Reforms After 1996
  5. Electoral Reforms Since 2010
  6. Notes and References

74. Voting Behaviour

  1. Meaning of Voting Behaviour
  2. Significance of Voting Behaviour
  3. Determinants of Voting Behaviour
  4. Role of Media in Elections and Voting Behaviour
  5. Notes and References

75. Coalition Government

  1. Meaning of Coalition Government
  2. Features of Coalition Government
  3. Formation of Coalition Governments
  4. Merits of Coalition Government
  5. Demerits of Coalition Government
  6. Notes and References

76. Anti-Defection Law

  1. Provisions of the Act
  2. Evaluation of the Act
  3. 91st Amendment Act (2003)
  4. Notes and References

77. Pressure Groups

  1. Meaning and Techniques
  2. Pressure Groups in India
  3. Notes and References

78. National Integration

  1. Meaning of National Integration
  2. Obstacles to National Integration
  3. National Integration Council
  4. National Foundation for Communal Harmony
  5. Notes and References

79. Foreign Policy

  1. Principles of Indian Foreign Policy
  2. Objectives of Indian Foreign Policy
  3. Gujral Doctrine of India
  4. Nuclear Doctrine of India
  5. Connect Central Asia Policy of India
  6. Act East Policy of India
  7. Notes and References

PART-XI Working of the Constitution

80. National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution

  1. I. Terms of Reference of the Commission
  2. II. Fifty Years of Working of the Constitution
  3. III. Areas of Concern: Commission’s Perception
  4. IV. Recommendations of the Commission
  5. V. Earlier Efforts to Review the Constitution
  6. Notes and References


  1. Appendix I: Articles of the Constitution (1–395)
  2. Appendix II: Subjects of Union, State and Concurrent Lists
  3. Appendix III: Table of Precedence
  4. Appendix IV: Constitutional Amendments at a Glance
  5. Appendix V: Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Prime Ministers, etc.
  6. Appendix VI: Chairpersons of the National Commissions
  7. Appendix VII: UPSC Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies —Prelims 2010–2019)
  8. Appendix VIII: Practice Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies—Prelims)
  9. Appendix IX: UPSC Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies —Mains 2010–2019)
  10. Appendix X: Practice Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies —Mains)

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About The Author

M Laxmikanth obtained his postgraduate degree in Political Science from Osmania University in 1989. M Laxmikant Book Pdf He is the former founder and director of an erstwhile coaching institute called Laxmikanth’s IAS Academy, Hyderabad. Other books authored by him include Governance in India, Laxmikanth Polity Pdf Objective Indian Polity, Public Administration and Constitution of India.

Indian Polity by Laxmikant PDF Google Drive Sixth Edition

I am pleased to place before the readers a thoroughly revised, Polity Laxmikant Pdf enlarged and updated edition of this widely read book on Indian Polity.

M Laxmikant Polity Book Pdf In 2011 and 2013, the UPSC changed the pattern and syllabus of the preliminary and main examinations, respectively. Both times, the scope of Indian Polity has been considerably increased. Hence, this new edition of the book is more relevant now and is aimed to meet the expanded needs of the aspirants. Laxmikant Book Pdf In the course of revision and updation of this edition of the book, various new developments related to the subject, like recent constitutional amendments, parliamentary legislations, executive decisions and supreme court judgments, have been taken into account.

M Laxmikanth Changes in this Edition:

1. Addition of 6 new chapters.
2. Inclusion of 2017, 2018 and 2019 preliminary questions with answers.
3. Inclusion of 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 mains questions.
4. Updation of the year-wise break-up of the UPSC questions in the preliminary and main examinations.
5. Inclusion of additional updated information on a number of topics. M Laxmikant Polity Book Pdf In Hindi
6. New items included in various chapters.

M Laxmikanth New Chapters:

1. Goods and Services Tax Council
2. National Commission for Backward Classes
3. National Investigation Agency
4. National Disaster Management Authority
5. Role of Regional Parties
6. Coalition Government

I firmly believe that this is now a very comprehensive and updated manual. M Laxmikant Indian Polity Pdf It is a matter of immense satisfaction that the previous five editions of this book have received an overwhelming response from readers. I am confident that readers would continue to repose their faith in this edition as well.

Constructive comments and concrete suggestions to further improve the book are welcome and shall be gratefully acknowledged. Indian Polity By Laxmikant Pdf Download

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Laxmikant Polity Book Pdf An effort has been made to make the contents of the book Laxmikant Polity Pdf Download relevant, authentic, and up-to-date. The constitutional provisions are explained in the light of the debates of the Constituent Assembly of India as well as the judgements of the Supreme Court and the high courts. I have also used tables to make the presentation more clear. Laxmikant Polity Pdf In Hindi The Appendices, provided at the end of the book, serve as a reference section. I welcome all constructive comments and concrete suggestions from the readers of this book. Laxmikant Indian Polity Pdf

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